French department of overseas, Martinique which with a nickname like, “the island of flowers”, will seduce you, because of its diversity of landscapes.
Located 7000 km from the metropolis and 2900 km from North America, Martinique is bordered on the west by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.
With an area of 1080 km2, this island measures 80 km in its greatest length and 39 km in its greatest width.
Its population is the most mixed of the islands of the Lesser Antilles.
It is divided into 2 “regions”, the south and the north.
To the south the landscapes are more arid and made up of hills that can reach up to 505m of altitude (mountain of Vauclin)
All along the coast, there are small bays called “coves”, the beaches are beautiful with crystal clear water and white sand.
To the north, the relief is more mountainous and the vegetation is very luxuriant. Dominated by the peeled mountain (highest point of the island 1397m above sea level), the Pitons du Carbet and Morne Jacob, this part of the island offers volcanic sand beaches.
To the north you will find pineapple and banana crops.
On the Atlantic side, few beaches are accessible because the coast is very steep and jagged by the ocean (see circuits n ° 2).
De type tropical hot and humid, Martinique is characterized by an average temperature of 26 ° annually.
There are two seasons: Lent and winter.
The hot and dry Lent extends from December to May with a period of great dryness from February to April where the sunshine is maximum. The temperature in this season varies between 27 ° and 34 °.
The wettest wintering period lasts from June to November and is characterized by a significant cyclonic risk.
The relief also plays a determining role and conditions the rainfall regime: the mountainous regions of the north, more rainy, have a cooler climate than that of the coast.
The sun is present all year long and the island is rocked by trade winds from the east and north / east.
Martinique therefore enjoys a temperate ocean climate that is appreciable throughout the year.
The milestones in the history of Martinique
Before 1493 : Arawaks and Caribbean successively populate the islands of the Lesser Antilles.
1502 : Christopher Columbus discovers Martinique.
September 1635 : Pierre Belain d’Esnambuc arrives at Carbet and undertakes the colonization of the island.
1636 : the first slaves arrive in Martinique to work in the cane fields.
1658 : disappearance of the last Caribbean Indians.
1848 : Abolition of slavery. Settlers call for labor from India.
8 May 1902 : Eruption of Mount Pelee and total destruction of the city of Saint-Pierre.
19 March 1946 : Martinique becomes French Department.
1982 : With the law of decentralization, Martinique becomes a region. Nowadays, Martinique is both a region and a department.